Kwame Nkrumah was born September 1909 in the Gold Coast, his father was a gold smith and his mother was a retail trader. Kwame Nkrumah spent nine years in Catholic Elementary school, and graduated from Achimota college in 1930. He later went to the United States to study further, in 1935 he went to Lincoln University. He graduated in 1939 with a masters. In the Gold Coast J.B. Danquah formed the United Gold Coast Convention to work for self government through constitutional means. Kwame Nkrumah was invited to serve as the UGCC’s general secretary, he accepted the job and lead meetings all throughout the gold coast. Kwame Nkrumah was arrested along with the other leaders of the UGCC’s leaders and arrested. Kwame Nkrumah created the Convention People’s Party that was commited to self government of the gold coast. Kwame Nkrumah was arrested and sent to prison for one year. During the Gold Coast’s first election the mass amount of people who supposed the CCP voted for him, he was released from prison as the Prime Minister of the Gold Coast. When the gold coast became independent it was renamed to Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah worked with other black leaders in America like Marcus Garvey, and worked on a system to allow African Americans to get citizenship in Ghana for free. On a trip to Beijing the Ghanaian military overthrew the government, and when Nkrumah arrived back he was banished and he lived in Guinea where he lived the rest of his life until he died in 1972.
Paul Robeson was born April 9, 1898, in Princeton New Jersey. He became a performer and actor. The first play he did was: All God’s Chillun and Emperor Jones in 1924. In the late 1920s he and his family moved to Europe. He worked on several other plays and movies, and in 1942 he was working on ‘Tales of Manhattan’ when he spoke out on it and criticized it for its portrayal of African Americans. Paul Robeson used his fame to speak out about Racism and other injustices, He performed for Allied forces, and once even visited the Soviet Union and became interested in their culture, along with his son. Because of him going and studying Russian, the American Government looked into him for having some kind of political ties with the USSR so they could arrest him. The speech Robeson had said in Moscow was twisted and turned to be framed as a communist by the American government, with this Labels, Film studios, and everywhere else he had worked, he had been blacklisted from in fear of their own reputation. Paul Robeson later on, wrote ‘Here I stand’ in 1958, after the government had given him his passport back, the same year, he traveled around the world, but his reputation had already been ruined and the damage had already been done. His career was over, after his wife’s death in 1965 he had no way of making money, and went and lived with his sister until his death in 1976 at the age of 77.
The Harlem Renaissance happened from 1918 to 1937. During this time, Harlem, and other cities with a growing black population, from the great migration; had grown and because of this, Black people had to create jobs and businesses to sustain themselves. In New York the Harlem Renaissance began, and with it, news papers were sent to the south telling people of the great opportunities up north, what were these opportunities? These opportunities were Clubs; New innovative music, such as jazz; Parties; Black Jobs that payed well; Civil rights movements; and a general area that black people could congregate and strive, and be free of lynches and the KKK. The wealth of the black community went up, with African Americans making their own businesses. Harlem at this point was very self-sufficient, with them having their own clothing lines, dolls, restaurants, house makers, and other stuff, because of Red-Lining Black people were forced to be very poor, but thanks to the Renaissance new things, such as Black banks, and news papers were able to give black people loans, which they couldn’t usually do, and then inform them about the news of the black community, free of the racism in papers outside of Harlem. Unfortunately Parties, Clubs, and other events were often attacked by Police, if a party shut down by cops, and everyone would be arrested and sent to jail.
The Senegalese Tirailleurs where legions of African solders that fought in World War I and II from the African french colonies. They where called Senegalese, but not all of them where from Senegal, some of them where from Mali Burkina Benin Ivory coast Burkina faso Ect.the were famous for there signature red hats and Coup-coup machetes. they fought bravely alongside American and French solders, but when France saw the alies where about to win the war the started the “Blachiment” of the army sending the fighters back home or the south of France to make it look like they were never there and replacing them with white solders. when the Tirailleurs got back home they were promised fair and equal pensions but did not get so when they protested and took a general hostage the French army opened fire killing between 30-70 Tirailleurs
In Oakland, California in 1966 the Black Panther Party was formed by Heuy P. Newton and Bobby Seale.