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The Asante empire or Asanteman was a West African empire founded in 1670 By Osei Kofi Tutu I and Okomfo Anokye, his chief priest. With his help, they united the independent states and created Asanteman to fight Denkyra the (the most powerful group at the time )who had them under an aggressive tributary status. They united under the symbolic golden stool the descended from the sky on the Friday of the ceremony. They successfully deleted Denkyra and the Asante became the dominant group. When Europeans came into contact which the Akan groups, particularly Kumasi the state capital they were shocked with the level of sophistication. Traveler and writer Thomas Bowditch describing Vast named road systems, Indoor plumbing, and an advanced form of government and law.

Forums of governance

Government was very complicated and was centered around the king or Asantehene each town had a king or “Ohene” each king had his own advisers, priest and stool carriers. Each one play a key role in the political and spritual governance of the empire

{Sources}: Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee: With a Descriptive Account of that Kingdom T.H. Bowditch

Pictures: Asante temples



In 1590 30,000 enslaved Africans ran away into the northern forests of Brazil and established the first acclaimed independent African community in the New World. This state was called the Quilombo. Quilombos are settlements of run-away Africans, Palmares was the largest Quilombo in Brazilian history and resisted the Portuguese government for 100 years (Powe, 32).

In 1655 Zumbi was born in Palmares, and in 1661, at the age of six during an attack, he was captured and sold to the missionary, Father Antonio Melo, as a slave in the same year ( In the year 1670 at the age of 15 he ran away to Palmares and served as a war commander under his uncle Ganga Zumba. He became respected as a military strategist and an expert of Capoeria, an art that was used to defend people against the Portuguese seeking to take Africans from the Quilombos for free labor (Taylor,

In 1678 the Governor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco approached the leader of Palmares, Ganga Zumba with an offer, freedom to all run-away slaves if Palmares submitted to Portuguese government. Another part of the terms were to have Palmares relocate to the Cacau Valley. Ganga Zumba liked the offer, but Zumbi declined. Zumbi declined the offer because he refused to accept freedom while other Africans were suffering in captivity and did not trust the Portuguese (Kentake, Zumbi challenged Ganga Zumba for leadership of Palmares and became the new king (Taylor,

Zumbi successfully defended Palmares through 1694 until it was defeated by a series of campaigns lasting two years. During the final battle, he managed to escape and evade capture for a year, he was betrayed and the location of his hide-out was given away to Portuguese forces. On November 20, 1695 Zumbi was be-headed. Zumbi’s head was transported to Recife to be displayed to the public as a warning to rebel slaves. Despite this there were several large slave revolts after this. November 20th, the day he died has been recognized as National Black Consciousness Day in Brazil (Powe, 32).


Powe, Edward L. Black Martial Arts VIII The ABC & “Bay-ah-Bah” of Capoeira de Angola. Dan Aiki Publications, 2011.

Taylor, Mildred Europa. “Zumbi dos Palmares, Brazil’s greatest warrior figure who led a massive slave resistance in the 1600s.” Face2FaceAfrica,*

Kentake, Meserette. “Zumbi dos Palmares: Hero of Brazil.” KentakePage,*

“The Afro-Brazilian Story I: Black November and Zumbi dos Palmares.” AtlantaBlackStar,*

17th_century.txt · Last modified: 2019/10/31 19:01 by drashid